Module 1: What is Epilepsy

Tonic-Clonic Seizures

Duration: 1 to 3 minutes

Area: Entire brain

Formerly knowns as ‘grand mal’ seizures.


Phase 1: Tonic

  • Stiffening of muscles
  • Person loses consciousness
  • The body becomes rigid as it falls to the ground.

Phase 2: Clonic

  • The body starts jerking and twitching in convulsions.


  • The person may make unusual noises as air is forced out of the lung
  • There may be loss of bowel of bladder control.


  • Confusion
  • Fatigue
Student having a simple partial seizure. He looks to be deep in thought.

Focal Seizure with Retained Awareness

Young man having a seizure while crossing the street.

Focal Seizure with Impaired Awareness

Female student having an absence seizure. She looks unaware.

Absence Seizures

Hands holding head of person having a convulsion.

Tonic-Clonic Seizures

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